Parenting in context: Marital adjustment, parent affect, and child temperament in complex families.

The parent—child relationship impacts many later social and cognitive outcomes. The current study compared correlates of mother versus father dyadic interactions with their twin children in 503 families at 36 months of age. Measures included parent reported child temperament, observed parents’ marital quality and affect, and parents’ sensitivity, responsivity, and growth fostering with their children. Different patterns emerged for mothers and fathers: marital quality related to higher sensitivity for fathers, whereas positivity related to higher sensitivity for mothers. Child inhibitory control was related to fathers’ response to child distress and mothers’ use of cognitive growth fostering. In sum, parental engagement varied depending on marital and child factors, although different patterns emerged for mothers and fathers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)