Parental influences on Hmong American adolescents’ ethnic–racial identity.

This study examined associations between cultural socialization and Hmong American early adolescents’ (n = 93) ethnic–racial identity in the context of the overall parent–adolescent relationship. Findings suggested that cultural socialization was positively related to ethnic exploration and resolution but not to affirmation. Involved–supportive parenting was not related to adolescent ethnic–racial identity either directly or as a moderator. Acculturation gaps, on the other hand, were indirectly related to ethnic affirmation via intergenerational conflict. In addition, indirect associations linking higher levels of cultural socialization to affirmation via conflict were found, but only at high levels of acculturation gaps. Findings and their implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)