Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale for Asian American Women: Development and initial validation.

Asian American women’s (AAW’s) mental health issues have received growing public attention; recent statistics suggest alarmingly high suicide rates among AAW. Yet, little research has examined the nuanced oppression that AAW face and the daily effects of compounded racism and sexism contributing to their mental health issues. Applying the intersectionality and microaggressions framework, we developed the Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale for Asian American Women (GRMSAAW) using data collected from 564 AAW. Items were developed via literature review, focus group, and expert review. Exploratory (N = 304) and confirmatory (N = 260) factor analyses suggested a 4-factor structure and produced 22-item scales of frequency and stress appraisal with the following subscales: (a) Ascription of Submissiveness, (b) Assumption of Universal Appearance, (c) Asian Fetishism, and (d) Media Invalidation. Internal consistency estimates were .80 and above for frequency and stress appraisal scales, and the scales accounted for 52% and 60% of variance, respectively. Examination of a bifactor model containing one general factor and four group factors suggested that GRMSAAW could be represented unidimensionally (total scale score) for the purpose of applied measurement. Initial construct validity was established as GRMSAAW scores were associated with sexism, racial microaggressions, depressive symptoms, and internalized racism in ways consistent with theory. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)